Architecture of houses in Rynok Square, Lviv
The time went by, generations changed, as well as tastes, views, styles. The century of condottieres and brave merchants gave way to the epoch of court cavaliers in velvet camisoles and powdered wigs.
Strict and sometimes severe palaces of Renaissance were replaced by the rich and magnificent palaces of the nobility in Baroque and Rococo style, which impress by their plastic sometimes of strong dynamic forms, and sometimes of whimsical, as if they were flirtatious and plastic is strong dynamic forms, whimsical, flirtatious as if they were effeminate.
House #10 is one of the best buildings in this number. Earlier there were two houses here, one of which belonged to the poet B. Shymonovych. In late XVII cent. capitally reconstructed building formed a whole - a palace, which became residence of the governors. At the same time, on the back facade, which faces Ivana Fedorova street, the date was carved - year 1695.
But in 1760, the palace, which became the property of the Liubomyrski princes, had undergone radical reconstruction again. New project was ordered to a prominent architect of the XVIII century Jan de Witte, and the construction was being done successively by Lviv architects B. Meretyn, M. Urbanyk and a sculptor S. Fessynher. Molded interior decorations and a sculpture, which decorates the outer corner of the palace belong to the sculptor S. Fessynher as well as to the direct makers Stefan Kodetskyi and Ian Obrotskyi.
This is truly a magnate's palace, which already with its size and its whole appearance instills its viewers an idea of its owner's power and wealth. A cannon with cannonballs and other military attributes, set in the corner niche of the building, were supposed to remind of its heroic glory.
The facade seems to be carved with a chisel of a temperamental creator. In the architectire of the building, there is no closure and isolation of monuments of the Renaissance; being more open and dynamic, it is associated with the surrounding architectural and natural environment. This is also facilitated by an extended balcony, surrounded by a balustrade with a magnificent pattern.
At the same time, there is no small dissemination of the forms, inherent in the art of developed Rococo. The features and characteristics of architecture of XVIII century are also revealed in some other monuments in the Market Square.
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The balcony of house #20, a very interesting house in general, is decorated with delicate openwork vases in rococo style. And the capitally reconstructed in the middle of XVIII cent. by an architect B. Meretyn narrow high facade of the house #3,
sandwiched between Bandinelli Palazzo and the "Black Kamianytsia" (Stone house), decorated with an attic and a very emotional baroque Atlanteans. Their fragile, bent figures are made not by strength and courage, but by the sophistication of the "gallant" era.
House #17, designed in rococo style attracts with its splendor, grace and light joyous festivity.
The Western side of the Market square ends with two houses, built on the site of the old houses already in the early XX cent.: #31 - by the project of an architect B. Viktor and a sculptor Z. Kurchynskyi in 1929, #32 (today a supermarket is located here) - by the project of an engineer M. Luzhetskyi.
The sculptural decoration of house #31 is defined in general by the stylistic of VIennese Art Nouveau and at the same time it is very peculiar: the facade is almost completely covered with low relief, soft and vague, like dough. A large number of decorative elements adds the building some unexpectedly barbaric splendor and at the same time naive tone elegance.
Almost the entire north side of Market Square was reconstructed in XVIII - early XIX century. However, there are frequent fragments of more ancient architecture as well: bouncy as a bow, outline of the Gothic arch (#45), or a bunch of grapes on the castle stone of the Renaissance propotions portal (#34).
But because of the contrast and their different timing, these fragments only emphasize the main line of the Lviv architecture evolution. In this part of the square all shades of architecture XVIII - early XIX century - from Baroque to developed strict and sometimes rather dry classicism can be seen.
In addition to their general architectural solutions, many buildings draw attention to some details that impart certain personality and specificity to the houses. Exactly in such details, so much exciting and interesting in themselves, stylistic features of the era, its times and local flavor are refracted often most clearly and directly.
For example, such amazing consoles, which support the balcony of house #36: in the middle, there is a head, crowned with a laurel wreath, and on the sides there are bearded guys with lions' torsos.
The Atlanteans of house #40 impress with their intense expression. These emaciated ascetics are made the with the righteousness of strong feelings and passions. Perhaps they went out of the tool of one of the prominent XVIII cent. Lviv school of sculpture representatives.
And nearby, above the portal of house #41, a charming maskaron with a long mustache and an ear to ear smile. The plafond with ornamental paintings in the porch of the house #39 is also undoubtedly of great interest. It is perhaps the only example of decorative painting, preserved in the old Lviv's civil architecture.