History of Truskavets
The territory of Truskavets was settled in the times of Kievan Rus, as evidenced by archaeological finds. Its name the city got from Old Slavic name Trushko or Trus'ko. Some researchers link it with Lithuanian word “druska”, which means kitchen salt produced here since ancient times.
After the collapse of Kievan Rus, this territory became part of the Galicia-Volyn principality. Population of the region lively traded with Kiev, Northern Rus - mostly supplied furs, cattle, grain and most of all salt.
Our site fully acquaint you with the history of the first sources of Truskavets.
In the second half of XVI century lands of principality were conquered by feudal Poland, after the principality was exhausted in war with Golden Horde. Kings rented villages for noblemen.
Truskavets estate owners in 1462 were brothers Ivan and Stanislav Korytko mentioned in ancient extant document about Truskavets. They collected from the peasants full tribute and a cash chinsh, forced them to perform a variety of duties in their farmstead.
In 1518 Truskavets joined the Royal Drohobych starostvo. Noblemen received the best land, meadows and pastures, they created estates. Landless peasants became devastated. In 1692 28 of 58 then village households had land of up to 2 hectares, other peasants used not big plot of land. The most difficult duty for them was to provide carts for salt or fuel.
Land-poor peasants were made to engage in crafts, predominantly in salt production. The city became famous in XI-XII centuries, when stocks of brine were discovered. Produced here salt was taken to the fairs in Kyiv region, Podolia, Volhynia, and even Belarus. Chumaky of the Dnieper also came here for salt.
Royal administration collected from salt workers high taxes and a portion of the evaporated salt, and in the case of disobedience forcibly captured the mines. The living conditions of salt workers were extremely heavy - they were suffering from hunger and poverty. In the struggle against the feudal exploitation the peasants used community organization.
In 1772, after the first partition of Poland, Truskavets as part of Galicia went to Austria (since 1867 - Austria-Hungary), and became the personal property of the Emperor. As before, the wealth of Truskavets was disposed by noblemen and officials, who continued the colonial policy of the Polish feudal lords.
One of indicators of the plight of the peasants -was very slow growth of the population in the village: in 1857 there were 932 people (against 900 in 1772). Almost all population was illiterate – only five students studied in a rural school in 1846.
In 1848, a wave of revolution shook Austrian Empire. Heavy shackles of serfdom were destroyed. But feudal forms of exploitation of workers were changed by capitalist ones.
By the middle of the XIX century Truskavets and surrounding villages were little known. After the invention of kerosene lamp in 1853, demand for oil sharply increased, and here many seekers of its deposits appeared (local people since ancient times used it as lubricant for wheel).
Less than half a century later in this quiet Carpathian Region "new Klondike" appeared. In Boryslav businessmen from Austrian, French, Belgian firms and banks started their affairs, in Drohobych the pipes of oil refineries began to smoke. Truskavets and its suburbs were at the center of a large oil basin.
Here were discovered deposits of sulfur, zinc oxide, Glauber's salt, iron, lead ore, gypsum, mineral wax - unique healing mineral. However, this tendency did not last long. Already in the second half of 1900 all Galicia, including Boryslav oil basin, was engulfed in economic crisis. Oil production has declined, the level of unemployment increased, exploitation of workers and peasants intensified.
Poverty and injustice aroused hatred against exploiters among working people, forced them to fight for their social and national liberation. Marxist ideas had great importance to strengthen this struggle in the second half of XIX century. At the beginning of XX century here illegally were extended edition of Russian Social Democrats, Lenin's "Iskra", the works of Lenin. The important role in the struggle of the proletariat of Western lands was played by revolutionary democrats Ivan Franko, Michael Pavlik and others.
During the First World War Galicia became the arena of fierce battles between the armies of the German-Austrian bloc and Russia. The Bolsheviks, who were part of Russian troops, led revolutionary propaganda among the local population.
The most important event for workers and peasants of Truskavets was October Socialist Revolution. They accept it gladly. In 1918 nearby, in Stebnyk, there Council of Workers' Deputies was created. It was the first one in Western Ukraine and had great importance for the growth of class consciousness of workers in Truskavets.
The wave of strikes swept here. In 1924 in the mine, located in the southern part of Truskavets, 200 miners striked against mass layoffs.
The struggle was led by members of Communist cell, which was part of Drogobych regional organization of Communist party in Western Ukraine. Under its guidance there was strike of cabmans, who demanded increase in costs for the transportation of forest.
Despite the authorities ban, in towns and villages of Prykarpattia people often celebrated International Workers' Day – 1st of May. 5Th September 1927 along the railway from Truskavets to Selets leaflets of Communist party were scattered. In 1931 workers of Truskavets at the call of the Communists conducted May Day. They demanded bread, land, freedom, advocated the reunification with Ukrainian SSR.
In autumn of 1939 Red Army entered the city. 24Th September the red flag was raised over the Truskavets. The temporary authorities and detachment of the People's Militia were created there in October. In the elections of deputies to the People's Assembly of Western Ukraine most people voted for the peasant Ivan Bozhyk.
He was elected a member of the Plenipotentiary of the Commission, which was instructed to submit to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Supreme Soviet and the Declaration of the People's Assembly of Western Ukraine. In late 1939 Truskavets peasant committee confiscated land from the landlords and divided it among the peasants. Then party and Komsomol organizations were created, the village council was elected, and it was headed by Communist Pavlo Kulyk. Lives of local people changed radically, who became citizens of the world's first socialist state.
We will help you rent an apartment in Truskavets.
But the peaceful constructive work was interrupted by the Great Patriotic War. Black page in the history of Truskavets became the period of Nazi occupation. July 4, 1941 the Nazis raided the village. They looted property and medical equipment resorts, destroyed the water tower, a power plant; forcibly took away boys and girls to work in Germany. However, mass arrests or killings or robberies could not break the spirit of the Soviet people.
August 6, 1944 Truskavets was released by troops of the 1st Guards Army under the command of Colonel General Grechko. The restoration of the ruined economy began. In the early days water supply and sewerage were enacted. Clinic, school resumed work; pioneer camps began work in the summer. Village Truskavets was built and gradually turned into a modern city. At the entrance to the city there is memorial where there are always flowers. Citizens hold sacred memory of those who gave their lives for the light today.